as one of the critical components of modern machine tools, spindles and the corresponding parts are designed in a wide variety of forms which is basically based on the driving mechanisms as well as other power systems. there are mainly belt driven, motorized, gear driven, direct driven, built in, etc. compared with other driving mechanisms, direct drive spindles are designed with stronger torque power, faster and more accurate activation, while is with larger area coverage.
machine tools with direct drive spindles are usually designed with larger machine body so that they can accommodate with the larger and longer spindle body, which eventually offer greater machining strength onto the work pieces. some spindles are specifically designed for certain models or machine tool types, such as turning spindles, milling spindles, drilling spindles, and so on. only with an appropriate installation of the spindle, can machine tools able to perform the designed competence.
in the spindle and driving development, direct drive is one of the oldest version of spindles and the structure of this kind of spindle is so simple that the mechanism is hard to make mistakes. with the simple structure, fast fabrication with machineries, the direct drive spindles are installed onto heavy duty machining centers such as some double column models. with the high precision, low vibration, same interface, and easy exchange features, machining centers are hence convenient to be maintained. direct drive model of spindles are with lower manufacture cost as well as fabrication cost (or say, assembly cost). direct drive spindle can reach to the level of high speed easily, making high speed within a comparatively short period of time together with good dynamics.
on the other hand, motorized spindle can reach high speed easily, and can balance adjustment within g1 and low vibration. since it can be modularize easily, the manufacturing model setting becomes much more easily for the machining center producer in a way and onsite operators can conduct many modularized procedure based on the blueprint. most motorized spindle is noiseless, and with high thermal stability. though the spindle is with small volume, it’s built with high power for small space installation. therefore, it is also called built-in spindle as it can usually be installed inside the comparatively small spindle case shell on the machining centers. as the market demands for, motorized spindles are designed with high dynamic rotary accuracy, so it is assuring to manufacturers to perform accurate cutting as well as boring with the machining centers that is installed with the motorized spindle objects.
moreover, aside from this fact, the motorized spindles are also called electric spindle due to the power source that it is attached and relied on. normally speaking, built-in spindles are the most widely applied spindle models on the machining centers in the industrial sector due to their very and unique characteristics designed in the blueprint. like in complementary distribution, high speed is a feature that is not likely to happen together with high torque if we are talking about spindle technology. most high speed spindles are the precision spindles design and applied in machining centers. in the machine tool sector, there are a very wide variety of spindle designs that is structures specifically for different kinds of processing demands. in the applications of mechanic theories, a spindle is a rotating axis of the machinery, which often has a shaft at its center. the shaft itself is called a spindle, but also, on the market, the word often is used to refer to the entire rotary unit, including not only the shaft itself, but its bearings and anything attached to it. there is, in fact, much different kind of spindles that can be installed onto the machining centers and here is some of the popular model introduced in the following sections.
the direct drive spindle: id manufacturers seek adter high torque, direct drive is a standard type of spindles that can definitely achieve high or even great torques during machining. meanwhile, direct drive is one of the oldest versions of spindles and the structure is simple. with the simple structure, fast fabrication with machineries, the direct drive spindles are installed onto heavy duty machining centers such as some double column models. with the high precision, low vibration, same interface, and easy exchange features, machining centers are hence convenient to be maintained. direct drive model of spindles are with lower manufacture cost as well as fabrication cost (or say, assembly cost). though direct drive spindle can reach to the level of high speed easily, making high speed within a comparatively short period of time together with good dynamics, it is not the major advantages if compared with the built in spindles.
belt drive spindle: this kind of spindle can be considered as the most prominent and the oldest spindle structure in the industrial world. today, machineries demanding for radial and axle machining capability, with higher rigidity and higher dynamic rotary accuracy, and belt drive spindles are an optimum option in this regard. many belt drive spindles are applied to machining centers for multi-task purposes due to its high repairmen feature that allows for subtle modifications and adjustments. however, such spindle structure would not allow for too speedy performance as well as too much torque production due to the belt issues, which may drop during heavy cutting as the belts are just put on the gears inside the gear boxes and the connections between the two are not strict and firm enough to make such a great force. besides the cutting machineries such as lathe and milling machines, in the field of grinder, high speed spindles are made with higher manufacturing cost and can only be repaired by professional experts. however, it contains high speed transmissions ranging from 12000 rpm to 30000 rpm, and that make this kind of spindles not to be neglected by manufacturers who pursue compact production modes.
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